Video version here:
This post contains links to sources and some extra analyses.
After years of low inflation, inflation in Europe has gone through the roof. Germany is experiencing the highest inflation in 70 years.
In June 2021, inflation was still close to 2%. In August 2022, it was above 10% in the European Union (EU) as a whole. But that number hides a remarkable divergence between countries. In Estonia, inflation reached a stunning 25% in August 2022. In France, it was 6.6%. In Switzerland, not an EU member state, inflation was just 3.3%.
A year before, in June 2021, inflation was very close to 2% in most European countries. With 5.3%, Hungary had the highest inflation. Inflation was lowest in Portugal, at -0.6%.
In this post, we’ll look at the change of inflation in 31 countries: the 27 member states of the EU, and the United Kingdom (UK), Norway, Switzerland and Iceland.
How can we explain the dramatic, uneven rise in inflation?
Consumers are paying a lot more for energy than they used to. Companies also face higher energy bills, which has an impact on the price of their goods and services.
As the following figure shows, there is a strong correlation1 between the rise of inflation and the ratio of energy use to GDP2. As a general rule, the more energy a country needs to produce a dollar of economic output, the higher its inflation. Countries in Central and Eastern Europe have higher energy intensities and higher inflation rates than their Western European neighbors.
Countries with a lower GDP per capita tend to be more energy intensive.
So it’s not surprising that Central and Eastern European countries, who are relatively poor, are experiencing higher inflation than the West3.
But it’s not just an East-West story. Even within regions with similar GDP per capita, the more energy intensive countries experience higher inflation. For example Central Europe4,
and the Baltics6.
The picture is less clear in Western Europe. The energy intensity of Luxembourg and Ireland is distorted by the denominator (small countries with a very high GDP per capita due to the presence of international companies). France already limited energy prices in 2021. The Nordic countries are just weird ¯_(ツ)_/¯
What’s going on in Iceland? Iceland is a rich country with an abnormally high energy use. Why doesn’t this result in much higher inflation?
Although Iceland is a small nation, it’s a big producer of aluminum.
Making aluminum requires a lot of electricity. But all of Iceland’s electricity is generated from renewable sources.
So the Icelandic economy is less affected by higher fossil fuel prices than the rest of Europe. Fossil-free electricity also seems to be the explanation for the very low inflation in Switzerland.
What other factors could contribute to the rise of inflation?
Inflation rose more in Spain and Greece than it did in Germany, although the German unemployment rate is much lower.
Government deficits and debt
Do deficits cause inflation (Fiscal theory of the price level)? It makes intuitive sense that if the government spends more money into the economy than it takes away with taxes, this deficit leads to inflation.
Denmark and the UK have the same change in inflation, although the Danish government ran a budget surplus in 2021, while the British had an 8.1% deficit. Finland and Estonia had similar deficits, but their inflation numbers are very different.
What about public debt? Maybe inflation goes up because people lose confidence in the sustainability of the debt. Or because governments choose to inflate away the debt.
Greece, with its massive government debt, has experienced a smaller rise in inflation than the Baltic countries, where government debt is very low. Estonia has both the lowest government debt to GDP, and the highest inflation in Europe! Inflation is higher in the Netherlands than it is in Italy, although Italy’s debt-to-GDP ratio is almost 100 percentage points higher.
Central bank interest rates
Central bankers try to control inflation by changing interest rates. By influencing how expensive it is to borrow money, they influence prices of goods and services.
The picture shows central bank policy rates13 on June 1, 2022. Since that time, central banks have raised interest rates in an attempt to tamp down inflation.
But it’s not clear that interest rates have an effect on Europe’s inflation. In the euro area, where the ECB sets monetary policy for all 19 member states, inflation rose by 4.7% in France and 21.5% in Estonia.
In Slovakia, a country with a negative interest rate, the rise in inflation (+10.9%) is similar to neighboring Czech Republic (+14.6%), Hungary (+13.3%) and Poland (+10.7%), where policy rates were over 5%.
In conclusion, Europe’s worse inflation in generations is driven by energy. Conventional factors monitored by central banks don’t seem to play a role.
This work started as a small project I did during the summer, using June 2022 inflation instead of the change of inflation (see tweet below). In this post and in the video, I used the latest available data. I also added six countries (Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, Malta, Romania14 and Iceland) to the dataset.
If you have any questions or suggestions about this work, you can find me on Twitter @janmusschoot or mail me at email@example.com.
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Twitter user Rasmus checked the data points I posted in June. His test shows that the regression line slope is different from zero:
Some further thoughts about energy prices
It is remarkable that there is such a strong correlation between inflation and energy intensity, given the different energy mix between countries. For example, natural gas is the most important fuel in Italy. Poland mostly burns coal, while Sweden relies on wood. While natural gas and coal prices are up hundreds of percent, that’s not the case for oil or nuclear.
I suspect the strong relation is due to electricity prices, which are often determined by the price of natural gas.
Other complicating factors that my analysis doesn’t take into account are price caps for energy (e.g. France), and the energy intensity of exporting industries (which should have less of an effect on domestic consumer price inflation).
What’s the deal with the Baltics?
The three Baltic countries (Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania) are outliers. Their inflation is much higher than we’d expect based on their energy intensity. It’s not obvious that the fact that they share a border with Russia is the explanation. Finland, a euro country like the Baltics, also borders on Russia and has a relatively low inflation.
There are several reasons why inflation is higher in the Baltic states than the average in the euro area. The share of energy goods in the purchasing basket of consumers in the Baltic states is larger, which has affected the rise in the price of the consumer basket. Natural gas and electricity were a little cheaper in the region before Russia’s invasion of Ukraine, but prices have now caught up to those in other countries.15
Useful energy-related links:
- The linear trend line for all countries except Iceland has an R² of 43%. Excluding both Iceland and Bulgaria, R² is 54%.
- Energy intensity data for 2020, except for Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, Malta and Romania (2019 data).
- Change in inflation versus GDP per capita:
- Central Europe: Croatia, Czech Republic, Hungary, Poland, Slovakia, Slovenia.
- Southern Europe: Cyprus, Greece, Italy, Malta, Portugal, Spain.
- Baltics: Estonia, Lavia, Lithuania.
- R² = 0%.
- Unemployment rates for June 2022 from ONS (UK) and Eurostat (all other countries).
- R² = 1%.
- Government deficits for 2021 for EU countries and Norway and Iceland from Eurostat, for the UK from ONS and for Switzerland from EFV. National data for Norway is also available at SSB. Data for Iceland at Statistics Iceland. These national data do not match the Eurostat data (e.g. Statistics Iceland says Iceland had a deficit of 7.9%; Eurostat reports 8.9%).
- R² = 7%.
- Government debt ratios for 2021 for EU countries from Eurostat, for the UK from ONS, for Switzerland from EFV, for Norway from SSB, and for Iceland from Statistics Iceland.
- Policy rates for
- Bank of England (UK)
- Bulgarian National Bank (Base interest rate)
- Central Bank of Iceland
- Croatian National Bank (Overnight deposit rate)
- Czech National Bank
- Danmarks Nationalbank (Denmark)
- European Central Bank (Deposit facility rate)
- Hungarian National Bank
- Narodowy Bank Polski (Poland)
- National Bank of Romania
- Norges Bank (Norway)
- Sveriges Riskbank (Sweden)
- Swiss National Bank
- I hadn’t added those before due to missing energy intensity data for 2020.
- Full FAQ from Eesti Pank:
Why is inflation particularly high in the Baltic states, and what are the differences between the three countries?
There are several reasons why inflation is higher in the Baltic states than the average in the euro area. The share of energy goods in the purchasing basket of consumers in the Baltic states is larger, which has affected the rise in the price of the consumer basket. Natural gas and electricity were a little cheaper in the region before Russia’s invasion of Ukraine, but prices have now caught up to those in other countries. Countries have tried to ease the impact on consumers from high energy prices, but have differed in the range of measures and how they have been applied.
Inflation has been higher in Estonia than in Latvia and Lithuania for some time. The majority of the difference has been caused by steeper rises in energy prices, while the price of the rest of the consumer basket has increased at similar rates. Under normal circumstances, overall inflation would be expected to be lower in Estonia than in the other two Baltic states, as the level of consumer prices had already risen notably higher in Estonia in previous years, and so had come closer to the level in the rest of the euro area. The consumer basket in Estonia is around 10% more expensive than that in Latvia, and some 15% more expensive than that in Lithuania. That many goods and services are still rising in price at more or less the same rate indicates a stronger demand environment and the pressure it is putting on prices. The sentiment surveys of the European Commission also point to stronger consumer demand in Estonia, and this can be explained by both rapidly increasing incomes, and the spending of savings built up during the pandemic together with the money withdrawn from the second pension pillar.