De sultan, de tsaar en de vluchtelingen

Een conflict waarbij Turkije en Rusland tegenover elkaar staan. Het krijgsgeweld brengt een stroom vluchtelingen naar Europa op gang. Hebben we het hier over Syrië anno 2016?

Hoewel de geschiedenis zich nooit exact herhaalt, zijn er opvallend veel overeenkomsten tussen de gebeurtenissen van vandaag en die van 1864. Meer dan 150 jaar geleden was er ook sprake van een kalifaat en terreur gemotiveerd door religie.

Het Ottomaanse Rijk heeft een hele reeks oorlogen uitgevochten met tsaristisch Rusland. Deze grootmachten hadden tegengestelde belangen in de gebieden rondom de Zwarte Zee.

Toen Rusland de Kaukasus veroverde in 1864, voerde het een etnische zuivering uit op de autochtone bevolking. Honderdduizenden islamitische Circassiërs vluchtten naar het Ottomaanse Rijk. Velen van hen gingen naar de Ottomaanse provincies in de zuidelijke Balkan, wat nu Roemenië en Bulgarije zijn. Continue reading “De sultan, de tsaar en de vluchtelingen”

The sultan, the czar and the refugees

A conflict with Turkey and Russia on opposing sides. The violence causes a stream of refugees towards Europe. Are we talking about Syria in 2016?

Although history never repeats exactly, there are a remarkable number of similarities between events of today and what happened in 1864. Over 150 years ago, there also was a caliphate and terror motivated by religion.

The Ottoman Empire has fought a series of wars against czarist Russia. These great powers had conflicting interests in the territories bordering the Black Sea.

When Russia conquered the Caucasus in 1864, it ethnically cleansed the indigenous peoples. Hundreds of thousands of Islamic Circassians fled to the Ottoman Empire. Many of them went to the Ottoman provinces in the southern Balkans, what is now Romania and Bulgaria. Continue reading “The sultan, the czar and the refugees”

Helicopter money part III: economic stimulus

What is helicopter money (HM)1 supposed to accomplish? Advocates of HM believe that HM acts as a stimulus which increases the level of economic activity. In this post, I construct a simple model and show in detail how it works. The steady state economy – an economy with a constant aggregate nominal income and expenditure per time – is described first. Next, the effect of reduced spending and income of the agents is illustrated. And then it is discussed how the economy can be returned to its previous steady state of spending.

What are the assumptions behind the model? And what is the scope of this post?

  • The economy is closed, there are no inflows from or outflows to the “rest of the world”
  • There is one single currency
  • Only nominal amounts and flows of money are considered in this post.

The effects of stimulus on prices and exchange rates will be discussed in later posts.

Easy numerical examples are used throughout this blog post. As I wrote before, this avoids the hidden inconsistencies that many words-only economic commentaries suffer from. The reader can check the logic of the model and expand it further for his own use. This should make it a powerful analytic tool for economists. I am planning to frequently use this model for further research, to answer questions regarding balance of payments and transfers between economic classes2.

Continue reading “Helicopter money part III: economic stimulus”